This module was created by Walid Javed. Northern Virginia Community College, HIS 135.



A woman in Darfur, standing near the ruins of her burned village (

The timeline below is intended for educational purposes and was created with assistance from various websites, which are located on the resources page. Sudan is a country rich in culture and history; this timeline highlights important key events throughout the country's history.

1956- Sudan becomes an independent country and is freed from British/Egyptian rule.

1958- A military coup is staged by military General Ibrahim Abboud (born in 1900, and died in 1983) against the civilian ran government.

1962- A civil war begins in southern Sudan.

1964- The October Revolution occurs, and Ibrahim Abboud is overthrown. The government comes under Islamist rule.

1978- Mass amounts of oil are discovered within southern Sudan.

1983- A civil war breaks out in southern Sudan. Sudanese Africans accuse the government of favoring Sudanese Arabs. The Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army is created and led by John Garang (Born in 1945, died in 2005).

1983- Islamic Sharia law is introduced by President Gaafar Nimeiry (Born 1930, and died in 2009).

1985- Gaafar Nimeiry is ousted due to growing unpopularity. The Sudanese government is replaced by a Transitional Military Council.

1986- General elections are held, and Sadiq al-Mahdi (Born in 1935) becomes prime minister of Sudan.

1988- An armistice agreement is drafted between the Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army. However, the agreement is never put into action.

1989- Another military coup occurs, and the National Salvation Revolution takes charge. However, a year later the council dissolves and Omar Bashir (Born in 1944) becomes president.

1998- A new constitution is put into place after receiving over 96% percent of the national vote.

2000- President Bashir is elected for another five years.

2001- The United States places sanctions on Sudan. The US cites that Sudan has committed acts of terrorism and violations against human rights.

2002- Fighting ethnic groups sign a ceasefire agreement.

2003- Groups in Darfur incite rebellions, claiming that the government is neglecting them.

2004- The Sudanese Military allow the Janjaweed (An Arabic ethnic group) to aide in the destruction of rebels in Darfur.

In March, The United Nations declares that the Janjaweed, who are supported by the Sudanese government, are committing mass murders on Sudanese African rebel tribes in Darfur.

2005- The Janjaweed continue to commit systematic killings against African Sudanese in Darfur.

2006- The Sudanese Government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army attempt to sign a peace agreement. However, because two other smaller rebel groups in Darfur refuse to cooperate, the Government and the Janjaweed immediately resume to violent force.

2007- The International Criminal Court issue warrants for a Janjaweed militia leader for heinous violations of human rights in Darfur.

2008- The Sudanese Government refuses to allow UN aide in West Darfur.

The International Criminal Court issues a warrant against Sudanese President Bashir for crimes against humanity and genocide in Darfur. The country of Sudan rejects these warrants and refuses to acknowledge them.

In November, President Bashir demands a ceasefire in Darfur. However, the rebel groups do not acknowledge his demands and continue to fight.

The UN reports a massive death toll of 300,000 people after five years of civil war.

2009- The Sudan government throws out all humanitarian groups after the ICC issues another arrest warrant with specific evidence against President Bashir.

In August, the war on Darfur was declared over.

2010- President Bashir promises to accept the terms that southern Sudan and northern Sudan created concerning the independence of southern Sudan.

In July, the ICC issues several more warrants on President Bashir for his crimes against humanity.